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Validity of conventional and restricted selection indices in selecting promising lines of sesame

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R. Shabana, A. A. Abd El-Mohsen*, A. K. Abd El-Haleem and A. A. Saber

To determine potential traits and selection criteria for yield improvement, twenty seven sesame lines and two checks were grown in two successive seasons of 2011 and 2012 to assess the presence of variability for desired traits and amount of variation for different parameters. The two experiments were grown in the Agricultural Production and Research Station of National Research Center, El Nubaria Province, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt, respectively. The data collected on 10 characters were subjected to three different analyses. Variability among the lines were determined with respect to the studied parameters. The results showed significant genetic variances and covariances among lines for all studied traits for all characters except, days to maturity in F6 and fruiting zone length in F7, indicating the existence of variability and the potential for selection and improvement within characters. A considerable amount of variability among lines for the traits studied also indicated the usefulness of selection for these traits in the genetic material used for future improvement in sesame. In variability analysis, high heritability was accompanied by a high genetic advance and a high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for number of branches plant-1, stem height to 1st capsule, number of capsules plant-1 and seed yield plot-1. In correlation analysis, the genotypic correlation coefficient was generally higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficient which indicated that the apparent association might be due to genetic reason. In selection indices analysis, twelve conventional selection indices (Ii) and two restricted selection indices with different number of traits were evaluated. Selection index was constructed to help selecting for several important traits simultaneously. Judicious use of conventional and restricted selection indices is of a great importance to the breeder. Selection of F6 line (s) that combine high seed yield with one or more desired agronomic or seed yield component trait in a new cultivar was practiced via 12 conventional and two restricted selection indices. These lines were evaluated in the next generation in an evaluation experiment. Heritability values ranged from 23.2 % for days to maturity to 92.2% for stem height to 1st capsule in F6 and from 45.3% for fruiting zone length to 93.9% for oil % in F7. There are no discrepancies between expected (GE) and actual (GA) genetic advances reported for four traits viz., fruiting zone length, branches plant-1, capsules plant-1 and seed yield plot-1 when direct selection for individual traits was applied. Seed yield plot-1 was significantly and positively correlated with plant height, stem height to 1st capsule, branches plant -1, capsules plant-1 and yield plant-1. Contradictory, seed yield plot-1 was significantly and negatively correlated with both seed index and oil%. Besides, the highest relative efficiency (591) was calculated in the conventional selection experiment that contained four traits viz., plant height, branches plant-1, capsules plant-1 and seed yield plot-1. Two restricted indices were applied for the characters that showed negative association with seed yield plot-1. Holding seed index and/or oil content of selected sesame plants to the means of unselected plants in a restricted selection index increased the seed yield plot-1 by 3.0 and 1.3% of lines mean while conventional selection index decreased seed yield plot-1 by 5.0 and 3.0% of lines mean, respectively in the selection experiment. A rank correlation between F6 either for direct selection for seed yield or among all selection indices used (conventional and restricted) and rank of seed yield plot-1 in F7 was positive and significant or highly significant. The line C3.8 recorded the highest seed yield plot-1 and higher resistance for foliar disease amongst the 27 elite lines in F6 and F7. It was higher than the mean of the population of lines by 28.4 and 44% and than the two checks cultivar by 48 and 100 % in 2011 and 2012, respectively


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A. A. Metwally, S. A. Safina* and A.H. Noaman

Mixed cropping is a system of agriculture that involves planting two or more crops simultaneously in the same field. A two year study was conducted at Giza Agric. Exp. & Res. Sta., Fac. of Agric., Cairo Univ., Egypt, during 2011 and 2012 summer seasons to increase yields of maize and cotton, as well as, famer's benefit. Mixed intercropping pattern (120 cm ridge width) was used in this study for growing both crops, maize plants were distributed in four plants per hill spacing at 70 cm of middle of ridge after one month of growing cotton, whereas, cotton plants were sown in both sides of ridges by growing two plants per hill distanced at 20 cm apart, in addition to solid plantings of both crops. Two Egyptian cotton varieties Giza 80 and Giza 86, as well as, one maize variety S.C. 30k08 were used. Three maize treatments (harvesting maize for grains, defoliation of maize at 100 days from sowing maize and harvesting maize for silage at 90 days age) were used under intercropping and solid plantings. A split-split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design was used. Cropping systems were distributed at main plots, whereas, cotton varieties and maize treatments were allotted in sub and sub – sub plots, respectively. For cotton plants under intercropping, shading of adjacent maize plants affected negatively number of open bolls per plant, seed cotton yields per plant and per ha. Cotton cultivar Giza 80 had higher values of number of open bolls per plant, seed cotton yields per plant and per ha in a comparison with the other. Harvested maize plants for silage caused significant increments in number of open bolls/plant, seed cotton yields per plant and ha by 7.69, 13.36 and 11.97 percent, respectively, as compared with intercropped cotton plants with harvested maize plants for grains. The studied cotton traits were affected by the interaction between cropping systems and maize treatments only. Intercropping maize with cotton decreased number of ears per plant, grain yields per plant and per ha as compared with recommended solid planting of maize. Intercropping decreased grain yields caused significant reduction in grain yield per ha by about 22.13% as compared with recommended solid planting of maize. Intercropping maize with cotton increased LER as compared to solid plantings of both crops. LER ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 with an average of 1.69. Net return of intercropping maize with cotton was varied between treatments from 475 to 936 € per ha as compared with recommended solid planting cotton (212 €).


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Ayman H. A. Mahdi

Two field experiments were conducted in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, El-Fayoum University. Three Egyptian bread wheat cultivars were evaluated in randomized complete blocks design with three replications for seven traits. The aims were to determine relationship among yield and its components and examine the efficiency of such components in building yield capacity by using three different statistical methods. Significant differences were detected among cultivars for all studied traits. Highly significant and positive correlation estimates were detected among grain yield plant-1 and each of number of grains spike-1, spike length, number of spikelets spike-1, 1000-grain weight and harvest index. On the other hand, plant height showed negative association with grain yield plant-1. Path coefficient analysis showed that maximum direct effect and joint effects on grain yield plant-1 were contributed mostly by number of grains spike-1, followed by spike length and number of spikelets spike-1 were the major contributors towards grain yield. Also, stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that three traits included number of grains spike-1, spike length and number of spikelets spike-1 were significantly contributing to variation in grain yield plant-1 and responsible for reducing 97.71 %, of total yield variance. In general the results showed that that the number of grains spike-1, spike length and number of spikelets spike-1 were the most important traits and they were highly effective on grain yield. Consequently, these traits have to be ranked the first in any breeding program to improve wheat grain yield

Characterization and evaluation of starches from different sources

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Eiman G. Hassan*, Abdel Moniem I. Mustafa and Ahmed A. Elfaki

Five types of starches extracted from different local Sudanese cereal cultivars (wheat, sorghum, millet, rice) and cassava were used in this study. Proximate composition, mineral content, functional properties and color of the starches were investigated. The results indicated that the five starches were significantly different in their chemical composition and mineral content. Wheat and cassava starches were found to be most acidic (0.03mg/100g) compared to sorghum, millet and rice starches (0.05mg/100g). Analysis of variance indicated that there are highly significant differences among the five starches in their falling number, water retention capacity (44.44 to 122.20 ml/100g), fat absorption capacity (50.00 to 95.00ml/100g), gelatinization temperature, cold and hot viscosity and amylose content. On the other hand, wheat and cassava starches gave significant high bulk density (0.67 and 0.63 gm/ml). Rice starch showed the lowest dispersibility (70%) which was significantly lower compared to the other starches. Wettability grade for the five starches was good. Sorghum and cassava starches gave very strong gel, while wheat, millet and rice starches gave strong gel at 10% concentration. The results indicated that cassava starch was whiter compared to other starches (95.71%). Millet starch showed high gelatinization temperature and low amylose content

Effect of different starches on dough rheological properties of wheat flour

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Eiman G. Hassan*, Abdel Moniem I. Mustafa and Ahmed A. Elfaki

Sudanese wheat flour (Imam) of 72% extraction rate, decorticated lentil flour and five starches from different local Sudanese cereal cultivars(wheat, sorghum, millet, rice) and cassava are used in this study. Ratios of starch used in wheat flour were 5%, 10% and 15%with 5%lentil flour. Flour characteristics and rheological properties were studied for wheat flour and wheat flour blends. The results indicated that addition of different starches blend resulted in an increase of falling number of wheat flour from 734.67 seconds to the range from 784.00 to 1079 seconds and significant decrease in wet gluten and gluten index. Addition of 5% and 10% millet starch blends resulted in increase in gluten index to 94.00 and 96.33 respectively. Water absorption decreased to the value ranged between 57.50 to 59.50% for 5% wheat, sorghum and cassava starches blends. Increased to 60.20% for 5% rice starch blend and decreased to the range between 55.70 to 58.40% for 10% and 15% wheat, sorghum, millet and cassava starches blends. Also increased to 61.50 and 63.80 for 10% and 15% rice starch blend respectively. Addition of high percentage of starch results in low values of dough development time. The energy and the extensibility of the dough of wheat flour decreased with addition of different starches percentages and the dough resistance to extension increased. Pasting temperature increased in the blends, while gelatinization temperature and gelatinization maximum decreased